Bibliothek für Bildungsgeschichtliche Forschung des Deutschen
Instituts für Internationale Pädagogische Forschung, Warschauer Str.
34-38, 10243 Berlin, Tel. (49-69) 29 33 60-55, E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org,
The Library for the History of Education (BBF) was founded as an international research library in 1876.
Since 1992, it has been part of the German Institute for International Educational Research. With its stock of
700,000 volumes and 1,400 running metres of archived records, it is currently the second largest library specialising
in pedagogy in Europe. The library acquires literature on the history of education in the German language area.
It thus belongs to the 46 distributed specialised libraries fulfilling the tasks of a German national library.
Online services offered by the BBF include
searching its catalogue and ordering journal articles.
Furthermore, the library offers:
Scripta Paedagogica Online - a digital text archive on the history of education
Pictura Paedagocia Online - a digital archives of pictures on the history of education in Germany
Vox Paedagogica Online - a digital sound archive on the history of education in Germany
Historische Bildungsforschung Online - a forum/scholarly portal for historical educational research
Kinder- und Jugendschutz e.V., Mühlendamm 3, 10178 Berlin,
Tel. (49-30) 400 40 301, E-Mail: email@example.com,
The Bundesarbeitsgemeinschaft Kinder- und Jugendschutz (BAJ/ Federal
Association for the Protection of Children and Youth) was founded
in 1951. Ever since it has been engaged in promoting the rights
and needs of children and youth in a non-party and non-confessional
manner. It represents their interests in the public and incites
measures for the protection of children and youth. The BAJ is an
association of the leading bodies in welfare, of youth and family
organisations, federal state institutes and associations for the
protection of children and youth , and of individuals sharing the
aim to sustain and improve the protection of children and youth.
On the one hand, children and youth are to be protected from possible
dangers, and on the other hand, they are to be enabled to cope with
endangering circumstances in a conscientious manner.
Bundesinstitut für Berufsbildung, Abt. 1 - BuD (Bibliothek und
Dokumentation), Robert-Schuman-Platz 3, 53175 Bonn, Tel. (49-228)
1 07-2126, E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org,
The Bundesinstitut für Berufsbildung (BIBB), (Federal Institute for Vocational
Education and Training) is a nationally and internationally recognised competence
centre for the research and development of professional vocational training and
further education. The BIBB publishes a bibliographic database on vocational
education and training, the Literaturdatenbank
Berufliche Bildung (LDBB),
which can be searched on the internet free of charge and without limitation.
This database systematically references German language literature from
the areas of vocational education and training, and pertinent research, published
later than 1988. The LDBB combines up-to-date references with high-quality
descriptions by indexing and abstracting, mostly regarding component parts
of bibliographic works. The system currently records approximately 50,000
entries by means of bibliographic data as well as indexing and abstracting,
and providing a classification of vocational education and training. The LDBB
increasingly references documents that are available online, thus full texts can
be directly accessed via the respective URL. These references include internet
publications by the BIBB itself as well as scholarly articles from selected online
journals. Users can commission individual retrieval services.
Bundesinstitut für Sportwissenschaft (BISp),
Graurheindorfer Str. 198 (Haus 7), 53117 Bonn, Tel. (49-228) 99-640-9041,
The Bundesinstitut für Sportwissenschaft (Federal Institute of Sports Science, BISp) is a
federal institution without legal capacity subordinate to the Federal Ministry of the Interior. It
was established following a decree enacted on October 10, 1970 (amended on November 17, 2005).
The BISp is concerned with assessing research needs and initiating, fostering and co-ordinating
research projects in the domain of sports (domain-specific research). Furthermore, its tasks
include the analysis of research findings, the transfer of research findings into practice in a
target-group oriented collaboration with the domain of sports. In particular, this pertains to the
domains of competitive sports, including talent scouting and the support of young athletes,
sports equipment, doping analysis, questions of sports development that are relevant to the
entire Federal Republic of Germany, and cannot be effectively promoted by a single federal
state in its own right. The BISp contributes to setting national and international standards in
the areas of sports locations and equipment. Moreover, it is charged with providing the Federal
Ministry of the Interior with professional advice in fulfilling its sport-related tasks. To meet these
demands, the BISp maintains the databases
SPOLIT (database of references), SPOFOR (research database), SPOMEDIA (audio-visual
media), the scholarly information guide to sports
(quality-proven sport scientific internet resources), and a
sport psychological information and contact
portal for competitive sports.
Evangelische Arbeitsstätte für Erziehungswissenschaft e.V., Arbeitsbereich
Information, Dokumentation, Bibliothek, Schreiberstr. 12, 48149 Münster,
Tel. (49-251) 9 81 01-27, E-Mail: email@example.com,
As a Protestant centre for educational science, the Comenius-Institut promotes
theoretical insight and practical solutions to current educational problems in the Church,
at school, and in society from a Protestant sense of responsibility. The area of information,
documentation and library services processes the complete literature on religious education,
and education in church institutions. It offers diverse
bibliographical databases online.
Full texts can be ordered directly from CiDoLi,
the document delivery service provided by the COMENIUS institute. Several databases are offered
on CD-Rom too, e.g. "Theorie und Praxis der Religionspädagogik", "Religionspädagogik -
Kirchliche Bildungsarbeit - Erziehungswissenschaft". This domain offers several
Services also to libraries and media
centres. A cooperation with the religious education institutes of the Protestant church in
Germany has resulted in a joint catalogue that is
also available to the public.
Deutsches Institut für Erwachsenenbildung - Leibniz-Zentrum für Lebenslanges Lernen e.V.,
Heinemannstr. 12-14, 53175 Bonn, Tel. (49-228) 32 94-232, E-Mail:
As a scientific service institute, the German Institute for Adult Education - Leibniz Centre for Lifelong Learning e.V. (DIE)
is acting as an intermediary between research und practice in the field
of adult education. It provides basic principles for practice-oriented
research and develops innovative concepts to promote life-long
learning. The library of the DIE has more than 80.000 volumes and is
currently subscribing to 230 periodicals in the field of adult and
continuing education. The literature database which can be consulted
via the Web-Opac
contains at present 95.000 records of books and articles in books and
periodicals that are made accessible in the field of adult education
and related sciences. The list of new acquisitions
"Neuvorstellungen der DIE-Bibliothek"
which appears four times per year informs about the most important acquisitions
of the library. The monthly issue of
(Scientific Periodicals Online) provides direct access to the tables of
content of 40 scientific periodicals on adult education. The historical
Archive of Programmes of adult education centres since 1945 and the Archive of the History of Adult Education, together with estates of eminent experts of adult education, are connected to the library.
The library is part of the "Information and Documentation Centre on
Continuing Education". It integrates the services of the Institute.
They include the areas of publications, public relations and internet
services. For example, the service
is aimed at practitioners, students and researchers in the field of
adult education and neighbouring sciences: Documents are being
published without charge to contribute to the ongoing discussion and to
reflect current trends in adult education. The online-offer of the DIE
also includes statistical data on continuing education, a commented lists of links and an investigable guidebook on studies related to adult and continuing education.
Deutsches Institut für Internationale Pädagogische Forschung,
Information und Dokumentation, Schloßstraße 29, 60486 Frankfurt am
Main, Tel. (49-69) 2 47 08-325, E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org,
The German Institute for International Educational Research (DIPF) is a non-university institute fulfilling scientific infrastructure
and research services in the field of education for researchers, practitioners, administrators, and policy-makers. It conducts
research and evaluation in education and ensures a national provision of information in education.
The DIPF profile is shaped by two intertwined focal areas of action, i.e. educational information and educational research.
Educational research tasks are conducted by the Department for Educational Quality and Evaluation, the Department for Educational
Governance and, finally, the Department for Education and Human Development. Educational information is subject to the Information
Department for Education and the Libraries for the History of Education and Educational Research. The Information Center for
Education provides information and counselling services such as the German Education Server
and the German Education Portal for all areas of educational research and science.
The development of new provisions is monitored by information scientific research.
Zentralblatt MATH, Fachinformationszentrum Karlsruhe,
Abteilung Mathematik und Informatik, Franklinstr. 11, 10587 Berlin, Tel. (49-30) 39 99 34-61,
The FIZ Karlsruhe is a non-profit scientific service institution
set up to provide information and information services for academic
and industrial research & development, as well as for business
and administration. In cooperation with its partners in the USA
and Japan, FIZ Karlsruhe is operating the host STN International,
offering public access to databases with scientific, technical,
and supplementary business information. A database created by the
FIZ Karlsruhe is MathEduc
(Mathematics Education). It is a bibliogrphic database for the theory
and practice on the subject of mathmatics and computer sciences.
It evaluates all the literature on these subjects worldwide and
it also offers key words and abstracts in both English and German.
Georg-Eckert-Institut für internationale Schulbuchforschung,
Celler Straße 3, 38114 Braunschweig, Tel. (49-531) 5 90 99 31,
The Georg Eckert Institute Library is a one-of-a-kind national and international research library in the field of comparative textbook research.
Within its rooms, the library houses a research-ready, worldwide collection of international textbooks on the subjects of history, geography,
politics/social studies and German. In connection with a considerable inventory of scholarly literature, the library affords the ideal requirements
for the comparative research of the textbook medium. Users include scholarly academics, textbook authors, teachers, students, journalists,
film-makers and private individuals. With its collection of textbooks, the Library has been incorporated as a Specialty Collection Library of the
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation). As a part of this, the library belongs to the 46 German specialty
libraries, which together administrate the tasks of a shared National Library. In addition to this, the Georg Eckert Institute Library serves as the
textbook center of the Council of Europe.
GESIS - Leibniz-Institut für Sozialwissenschaften
Lennéstr. 30, 53113 Bonn, Tel. (49-228) 22 81-0, Fax (49-228) 22 81-120,
The GESIS Social Science Information Centre (GEISIS-IZ Sozialwissenschaften)
collects and disseminates information on the current state of research and literature in the
social sciences in German-speaking countries as well as on research activities in social
science in Eastern Europe. Its databases provide the basis for a comprehensive range of
social scientific services offered to interested parties from the fields of research, teaching and
training, business, administration, policy and the media. The project database
SOFIS and the
bibliographic database SOLIS
are each accessible in a domain-specific environment, via the hosts STN International, Karlsruhe,
and GENIOS-GBI, Munich and access is usually free of charge for members of higher education
institutions owing to flat-rate agreements with the hosts. The social science portal
sowiport provides a further integrated search platform
for SOLIS and SOFIS, along with other national and international bibliographic databases.
Bibliothek, Ahrstr. 39, 53175 Bonn, Tel. (49-228) 88 7-159, E-Mail: email@example.com,
The HRK (Higher Education Rectors' Conference) library contains
one of the largest higher education collections in the Federal Republic
of Germany. It comprises more than 68,000 monographs, 800 subscriptions
to periodicals (350 of these are higher education journals), approx.
95,000 "grey literature" documents, course registers of all German
universities since 1945, 5.400 legal judgements regarding higher
educational and scientific issues, and the course and exam regulations
of all German higher education institutions. The literature that
has been acquired since 1996 can be searched in the
online catalogue. Currently more than 53,000 titles are recorded.
Institut für Hochschulforschung e.V., Bibliothek, Collegienstraße
62, 06886 Lutherstadt Wittenberg, Tel. (49-3491) 46 62 51, E-Mail:
and information service maintains a noteworthy collection of literature
on higher education that can be searched in two comprehensive databases.
The newer part of the database can be searched directly
(OPAC Recherche). The information and documentation system ids
hochschule allows research in further pools of data (events,
projects, links, institutions, literature provided by cooperating
institutes). As an additional feature the library offers a special
collection of literature on colleges and universities in the GDR
and Eastern Europe as well as information on the renovation of colleges
and universities in the new federal states in Germany from the years
für Fremdsprachenforschung, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Hans-Meerwein-Straße,
Lahnberge, 35032 Marburg, Tel. (49-6421) 2 82 21 41, E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org,
The Information Centre for Foreign Language Research (Informationszentrum
für Fremdsprachenforschung) (IFS) informs on and documents literature
about foreign language research and teaching. The database currently
contains about 52.000 literary sources that for the most part include
abstracts. On request inquiries can be made on specific topics -
an email inquiry is currently free. In addition, the IFS also offers
a research register called "Sprachlehrforschung und Sprachunterricht".
This is a German publication only, which appears in the first issue
of the "Bibliografie Moderner Fremdsprachenunterricht"
(Bibliography of Contemporary Foreign Language Classes). The IFS
website offers useful addresses and links for teachers of foreign
languages, as well as the research register and an online questionaire
to notify on ongoing research projects.
Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung
der Bundesagentur für Arbeit, Servicebereich Dokumentation und
Bibliothek, Regensburger Str. 104, 90478 Nürnberg, Tel. (49-911)179-5437,
The IAB service area
"Dokumentation und Bibliothek" constitutes the main information centre for research in
the area of employment and job market in the Federal Republic of Germany. At the centre
of its documentational tasks are three databases: the Literaturdatenbank zur Arbeitsmarkt-
und Berufsforschung (literature database of the employment market and job research), the
Forschungsprojektdatenbank (research project database) and the Institutionendatenbank
(institutes database). The
databases are available free of charge in the internet. Moreover, IAB provides divers web
information services, such as the
"Arbeitsmarktpolitisches Informationssystem" (information system on labour market policy)
Informationsplattform (information platform) with current and focal issues in job market and
IPN - Leibniz-Institut für die Pädagogik der Naturwissenschaften und Mathematik an der Universität Kiel,
Olshausenstraße 62, 24098 Kiel, Tel. (49-431) 8 80-5084, E-Mail: email@example.com-Kiel.de,
The IPN sees its task in conducting research aimed at the further
development and promotion of education in the sciences. The IPN
is active in fundamental research concerning learning and teaching
the sciences. Interdisciplinary teams of scientists, pedagogues,
psychologists, and experts in the didactics of science teaching
on current pedagogical research problems and projects.
As an institute of the Wissenschaftsgemeinschaft Gottfried Wilhelm
Leibniz, the IPN works on a supra-regional and nation-wide level.
Apart from a research department, it also operates a service department,
which, for instance, documents science curricula, decrees and directives.
The database "Bibliography
- STCSE: Students' and Teachers' Conceptions and Science Education"
constitutes part of the ongoing documentation service.
Sekretariat der Ständigen Konferenz der Kultusminister der Länder
in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Referat Dokumentations- und Bildungsinformationsdienst,
Lennéstr. 6, 53113 Bonn, Tel. (49-228) 5 01-272, E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org,
The Ständige Konferenz der Kultusminister der Länder in der Bundesrepublik
Deutschland (Ongoing Conference of the Ministers of Culture of the
States in the Federal Republic of Germany) is an association of
ministers and senators of the individual federal states that are
responsible for education, colleges/universities and research as
well as cultural affairs. The Dokumentations-
und Bildungsinformationsdienst (educational documentation and information
services) of the Secretariat of the Standing Conference of
the State Ministers of Cultural Affairs provides information on
the education system in the federal states, educational policy in
the Federal Republic of Germany, and other European countries. The
collection of KMK decisions, literature concerning educational and
research policy and cultural policy, information by the Eurydice
network, legal norms by the federal and state governments and the
central collection of state curricula constitute the foundation
of resources. The databases norms and curricula have been accessible
on the Internet since 2001. As the German information center in
the Eurydice network, the documentation and educational information
services are responsible for the exchange with 33 European countries,
they include national reports and contributions to comparative analyses
of the Eurydice network.
für Bildungsforschung, Bibliothek und wissenschaftliche Information,
Lentzeallee 94, 14195 Berlin, Tel. (49-69) 8 29 95-229 /-230, E-Mail:
The Max Planck Institute for
Educational Research was founded in 1963. As an interdisciplinary research
institute, it is dedicated to studying human development and education.
Many of its research efforts are marked by the perspective of the full lifespan,
addressing early childhood as well as old age. Individual developments are
viewed in a historical, evolutionary, social and institutional context. Researchers
at the institute itself mainly come from the disciplines of psychology, educational
science and history. They place strong emphasis on a collaboration with
researchers from the neighbouring disciplines of natural, social and human
sciences. The institute belongs to the Max Planck
Society for the Advancement of Science, an independent, non-profit research
organisation. The 80 research institutes of the Max-Planck-Society perform basic
research and they take up new and innovative areas of research requiring specific
resources. The library and scientific information services of the institute include
printed and electronic media and information needed for research. Furthermore,
the library stocks are searchable via an
catalogue, and the library digitises the institute's
series of research papers
and makes them available on the web free of charge.
Institutes for the didactics of physics:
Freie Universität Berlin,
Pädagogische Hochschule Ludwigsburg,
Erlangen-Nürnberg, Sondersammelgebiet Bildungsforschung,
Universitätsstr. 4, 91054 Erlangen, Tel. (49-9131) 8 52 47 97,
The subject specialization area "educational research"
of the university library of Erlangen-Nuernberg collects and compiles
national and international publications (including those that do
not appear in bookshops), thereby covering the supply of literature
in Germany. They are continuously adding to their qualitatively
good stock of pedagogical literature of the 18th and 19th century.
Queries about the electronically catalogued stock and the newest
acquisitions of the special collections area can be made via the
OPACs of the
University Library of Erlangen-Nuernberg. Periodical articles
and books of the subject specialization area can be ordered via
delivery service SUBITO and sent straight to your work area
or your home.
ZBW - Deutsche
Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften,
Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft, Düsternbrooker Weg 120, 24105 Kiel, Tel. (49-431) 8814-555;
Neuer Jungfernstieg 21, 20354 Hamburg, Tel. (49-40) 42834 -219;
E-Mail: email@example.com, Internet: http://www.zbw.eu/
The German National Library of Economics (ZBW) is the world's largest specialist library for
economics, with locations in Kiel and Hamburg.
Pursuant to its library profile, the ZBW strives to collect literature in the field of economic science and economic practice from all over the
world, and render it accessible to the general public, making literature available on the library
premises themselves as well as offering external loan services and document delivery. Titles are
referenced and indexed in the bibliographic database ECONIS, which can
be searched free of charge. ECONIS is one of the largest economics databases worldwide, it lists ca. 5
million references regarding books, journal articles, working papers, essays from series, and more than
134,000 electronic full texts (as of 2009).
Today, the library holds ca. 4.2 million volumes. The number of current subscription periodicals is
31,970. Ca. 60,000 volumes are added each year, ca 20,000 thereof are working papers.
In co-operation with the University and City Library Cologne, the ZBW provides for the virtual library
for economics and business studies, EconBiz.
für Psychologische Information und Dokumentation (ZPID), Universität
Trier, Universitätsring 15, 54296 Trier, Tel. (49-651) 2 01-2877,
Fax (49-651) 2 01-2071, E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org,
The ZPID (Central Office of Psychological Information and Documentation)
is the supra-regional main documentation and information facility
on the subject of psychology in the Federal Republic of Germany.
The tasks of the ZPID include the documentation of psychologically
relevant literature from the German-speaking community, audio-visual
media, test processes and European (cross section) studies, creating
and developing databases and online offers, the publication of printed
information services as well as an information referral service
that works on inquiries. Inquiries can be made for free by using
the sub-file of the PSYNDEX,
database. Psychological and pedagogical test processes that have
been developed and/or implemented in German-speaking countries can
be seen in the PSYTKOM
für Bildung und Kultur, Josefsplatz 1, A-1015 Wien, Tel.
(43-1) 53 41 0-504, E-Mail: email@example.com,
The Verbund für Bildung und Kultur (VBK) is an association of Austrian
libraries focusing on education. Its members include educational
academies, regional school governors, and adult education institutes
Konferenz der kantonalen Erziehungsdirektoren, Informations- und Dokumentationszentrum
IDES, Haus der Kantone, Speichergasse 6, Postfach 660, 3000 Bern 7, Tel. (41-31)
3 09 51 00, E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org,
IDES (Information and Documentation Centre) is the informational
services center of the EDK, the Swiss Conference of Cantonal Ministers
of Education. IDES systematically records all of their activities
concerning the policy of education in Switzerland and documents
them. The work and findings of the EDK are made available to the
general public by the IDES via various publications, the internet
and a CD-ROM. A literature
database created by the IDES is available for inqueries online.
Surveys and reports on education in Switzerland can also be downloaded.
Schweizerische Koordinationsstelle für Bildungsforschung (SKBF), Entfelderstrasse 61, CH-5000 Aarau, Tel. 0041 62 835 23 90,
Fax 0041 62 835 23 99, E-Mail: email@example.com, Internet: http://www.skbf-csre.ch
The Schweizerische Koordinationsstelle für Bildungsforschung (Swiss
Coordination Office for Educational Research, SKBF) contributes
services towards strengthening educational research in Switzerland. It
aims at improving the dialogue between educational policy, educational
practice, education administration, and educational research. It
supports an efficient use of budgets in educational administration by
taking on tasks concerning the interests of different actors in the
Swiss education landscape.
The SKBF conducts its tasks on the basis of an agreement on achievement which includes the following foci:
- Documentation of research achievement and outcomes regarding Swiss educational research or international educational research pertinent to the Swiss education system,
- Information on Swiss educational research products http://www.skbf-csre.ch/11.0.html
- Coordination of educational research, practice, administration and policy and promotion of national and international collaboration in educational research,
- Analyses of the state of research in current areas of educational research.
Swiss Special Education Centre Foundation (SZH/CSPS), Haus der Kantone,
Speichergasse 6, CH-3000 Bern 7, Tel. (41-31) 3 20 16 60, Fax (41-31) 3 20 16 61,
E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, Internet:
The Swiss Special Education Centre Foundation is a private national
body in charge of coordinating and promoting special needs education
by different means. It collects, processes and disseminates information
on education and training of people with disabilities in Switzerland.
Moreover, the SZH participates
in planning, implementing and developing special educational systems
at the level of federal and state (cantonal) authorities as well
as national associations.
University Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Psychology and Sciences of Education,
24 Republicii Street, Cluj-Napoca, Romania, Tel. (40-264) 5 90 559,
(40-264) 4 05 337, Fax (40-064) 5 90 559, E-Mail: email@example.com,
The Faculty of Psychology and Educational Science is one of the
21 faculties of "Babes-Bolyai" University of Cluj-Napoca, Romania.
Founded at the beginning of the year 1997, the Faculty of Psychology
and Educational Sciences organizes university study programmes for
the following specializations: Psychology (lines of study - Romanian
and Hungarian), Special Psychopedagogy (lines of study - Romanian
and Hungarian), Pedagogy (lines of study - Romanian and Hungarian),
Primary and Pre-School Education Pedagogy (lines of study - Romanian,
Hungarian, German). The teaching staff of the faculty carry out
their didactic and educational activity and scientific research
within the following chairs: the Chair of Psychology, the Chair
of Special Psychopedagogy, the Chair of Educational Science, the
Chair of (Natural) Sciences Didactics, the Chair of Teaching Social
and Human Sciences, the Chair of Applied Educational Psychology.
The international journal "Studia Universitatis 'Babes-Bolyai',
Seria Psychologia-Paedagogia" is published by the faculty and
includes scientific studies that comprehend the field of educational
science, and also abstracts of them in languages that are used internationally.
Cluj-Napoca, Institute of Didactic Training,
7 Sindicatelor Street, 400029 Cluj-Napoca, Romania, Tel. (40-264)
5 97 000, (40-264) 4 05 337, Fax (40-064) 5 97 000, E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org,
The Institute of Didactic Training of "Babes-Bolyai" University
of Cluj-Napoca is a separate institution in the structure of the
university education faculty, specialized in providing educational
services in Romanian, Hungarian, German and in other modern languages.
It administrates the whole initial and in-service didactic training
of "Babes-Bolyai" University, reflects the multicultural structure
of "Babes-Bolyai" University and also the intercultural development
promoted by the university. The structure of the institute includes
the following units, which conduct their activities along the lines
of study mentioned above: the Teachers Training Department, the
Chair of (Natural) Sciences Didactics, the Chair of Teaching Social
and Human Sciences, The Centre of Psychopedagogy and University
Didactics (centre of educational research), the Centre of Research
and Innovation in Curricula (centre of educational research); the
teachers and the psychologists working groups. The institute publishes
the annual journal "Education 21", which is published in English
since issue number 3, the quarterly magazine "Didactics" (Rumanian)
and "The Annual of the Institute of Didactic Training" (German)
are published by the Institute of Didactic Training, too.