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Help on Search in the German Education Index




Online-Tutorial: FIS Bildung Literaturdatenbank by Bamberg University



Quick Help

  • Small and capital letters: are not distinguished (e.g. groß finds Groß and groß).
  • "ä","ü",ö", "ß": automatic transformation (e. g.: Universität finds Universitaet and Universität; Rußland finds Russland and Rußland).
  • Linking of search terms:
    • within the same field:
      • "all words" as default setting: "AND" conjunction of search terms (all search terms appear in the field)
      • "all words" deactivated: OR-coordination of search terms (one of the terms must appear in the field )
    • between separate fields:
      • default setting: AND conjunction (all search terms must appear in the linked fields)
  • Wild Card:
    • * for several characters (e. g. mal* finds maler, malwettbewerb etc.)
    • _ for exactly one character (e. g. male_ finds maler, malen etc.)
  • Search phrase: must be enclosed in " " (e. g. "Vereinigte Staaten")


Quick Search

The quick search quest activates a free text search in one entry across several fields of the database (key terms, title, author/editor, institutions, description and source). This may result in a high number of results due to the lack of specification.You can use the options for differentiation provided by the "advanced search" in order to delimit the number of results. Please consult the "quick help" instructions concerning the entry of your search quest.

Please enter one or several search term(s) that should appear in the recorded results in the search box for the activation of a quick search quest. Several search terms must be separated by a blank space. The box "all words" should be ticked in a default setting. This implies that all the search terms must appear in the record pertaining to the requested document. ("AND" conjunction"). You can deactivate the box, thus creating an "OR" search quest, if it is sufficient for only one search term to appear in the document record.

You can reduce a word to its stem if you want to include, for instance, derivations and plurals, and attach a wild card, * for an undefined number of characters (_for a single character; e. g.: Kind* finds Kind, Kindes, Kindheit), this can also succeed a search term (e. g.: *schule finds Schule, Hochschule, Sonderschule). Such a wildcard can also be used in the middle of a word.

Search terms can be combined to a search phrase by means of "", (e. g.: "Kinder- und Jugendschutz" finds the exact match of characters "Kinder- und Jugendschutz", but not "Jugendschutz" as an individual term).

Below the entry field, you can limit the display of records to full texts by ticking "Online documents only".

Search track
In the left hand area of the search mask, below the entry field, you will find a checkbox to activate the storage of your search track called "History". This will enable you to save the search queries you have submitted within one or several sessions. You will find the list of saved search queries in the "History" tab above the search mask. The listed Links will direct you to a search mask with respectively entered terms. You will then be able to submit a modified version of the search query. In analogy to the “save record“ function, this option depends on the cookie functionality of your web browser. Accordingly, the terms listed in the section on the “save record” functionality apply.

Search with Autocomplete
Upon entering the first few characters, a list of the most frequently used index terms will appear. By using the arrow keys or mouse, you can place the focus on a term and press “enter” to insert it into the search field. When entering a blank space, the autocompletion function can be used once more for the same entry field. Length of the list is limited to 16 entries. Search term suggestions are taken from the keyword index and the index of persons provided by the German Education Index. Once you have sufficiently defined your search query, it can be submitted by pressing the “search” button.

The search can be started by activating the "search" button after it has been sufficiently defined.


Advanced Search

The advanced search option allows you to reformulate a query more precisely by allocating the search terms to specified search fields. If the box is ticked for "all words", terms within a search field will be linked with an And conjunction (all of the keywords must appear in a retrieved record). You can de-check the box, thus search terms within a field will be linked with an Or conjunction (one of the search terms needs to be in the retrieved record). The pull-down menu at the left hand side of a field allows you to define a conjunction between search fields. You can choose between And, Or, And Not (to exclude a search term/several search terms from a retrieved record). When entering a search term, please observe the information given in the Quick help section.

The following search fields are provided:

Key terms (Field Index):
This field is most suited for thematic search. Keywords that consist of several words (phrases) need to be enclosed in quotation marks (example: "Rational number"). This rule also applies to first names and surnames that are searched as a keyword item. Such keywords must furthermore be entered in inverted style (e. g.: "Montessori, Maria"). You can use the keyword index to check what keywords are stored in the German Education Index, accessible via a link to the right of the keyword field. Information on using the index can be found in the respective paragraph on "indexes". The field supports entry by autocompletion.

Extension of search queries
In searching the keyword index different relations between keywords are automatically integrated and search query is enhanced by the linked terms. The following relations have been taken into account: synonyms, hypernym and hyponym relations, combination of terms-combined terms.

  • Example synonyms: "Vereinigte Staaten" will find "USA".
  • Example hypernym/hyponym: "Baum" (tree) will find "Baum" Or "Eiche" (oak) Or "Buche" (beech); "Buche" will find only"Buche".
  • Example combination of terms-combination term: "Abendgymnasium" (evening grammar school) will find "Abendschule" (evening school) And "Gymnasium" (grammar school).
A table displaying term combinations that are considered for the extension of search queries can be downloaded in PDF format. Alternatively the identical content is also provided in an Excel spreadsheet. So far, the search query enhancement has only been implemented in the keyword field.

Free Text (Word Index):
This search quest activates an automatic simultaneous search across the fields of key terms, titles, author/editor, institutions, descriptions and source. The free text search is, for instance, recommended when a search of key terms does not create a sufficient number of results. The field supports entry by autocompletion.

Title (Word Index):
This search field allows for the search of terms belonging to all parts of a title (main title, addition to the main title, original title, translated title).

You can use the field "year" in order to delimit the search to a particular year of publication. Thus, please enter an individual year or a period of time by means of entering < (prior to the year), > (following the year), <=(prior or in the particular year), >=(following or in the particular year) into the search field.

Author/Editor (Field Index):
You can search for authors, publishers and author contributors in this field. The names of persons can be entered as such:

  • "Last name, first name"
    in quotation marks (example: "Klafki, Wolfgang")
  • "First name last name"
    in quotation marks (example: "Wolfgang Klafki")
  • last name
    finds all persons bearing this last name (e.g.: Klafki)
You can use the index of authors in order to find out which persons are listed in the database. The link to this index is at the right hand side of the field "author/editor". You can find further information on the use of the index here. The field supports entry by autocompletion.

Journal (Word Index):
You can use this field when searching for articles from specific journals.

Institutions (Word Index):
This field allows you to search for corporate publishers.

Source (Word Index):
Here you can enter terms pertaining to the source of the publication (publishers, year of publication, thesis statement, title of series , title of journal, ISBN, ISSN, title of a collective work in case of a contribution to a collection).

The database is enhanced by a number of records several times a year. Newly added records are categorised by a single update specification. Please use the index in order to enter the correct specification of an update into the field. A specification consists of the year and number of the update within the relevant year. The addition "CD" is irrelevant as the production of a CD Rom version of the database was stopped in Spring 2005.


Further search tools:

At the bottom of the search mask, you can delimit the results by using the filters "document type" and "language". No delimitation will take place if all boxes are ticked. You can remove certain document types or languages by deactivating the relevant boxes.

Search track (saved queries)
In the left-hand area of the search mask – below the field names – you will find a checkbox activating a save-track function called “History”. This will enable you to save the search queries submitted within one or several sessions. The list of submitted queries can be displayed by activating the "search track" tab above the search mask. The listed links will activate a search mask displaying entered search terms. A modified search query can then be submitted. In analogy to the ”save record“ function, this track function depends on the Cookie functionalities of your browser. Therefore, the terms described in the paragraph on saving records apply.

Search by indexes
Für die Suchfelder "Schlagwörter", "Autor, Hrsg." und "Update" stehen ihnen (rechts neben den Feldern) Register zur Verfügung, in denen Sie sich einen Überblick über die vorhandenen Suchbegriffe verschaffen können. So benutzen Sie die Register:

  • Mode: "exact": Only those records are displayed that match your entry exactly. You may use wildcards in the search quest, for instance the entry "Berufsbild*" results in the display of all key terms beginning with "Berufsbild".
  • Mode: "beginning of word": You are directed to the site of the index where your search term is located, but additionally the preceding and succeeding index terms are displayed. This mode corresponds to the browsing of an index.
  • Mode "Word part": You are only shown those search terms recorded in the data base that include the characters you have listed either in the beginning, middle or at the end of a word. Thus, the entry "Berufsbild" would also display the result "Zentralinstitut für Berufsbildung der DDR". Hence, this mode corresponds to the mode "exact" with wildcards at the beginning and end of a search term.

You can enter an index term into your search term by clicking onto it. Please use the "copy and paste" function of your computer if you have deactivated Javasript. The alphabetical blocks at the bottom allow you to scroll forward or backward.

Searching with autocomplete
When entering a few characters in one of the following fields, a list of the most frequent index terms will be displayed: free text, keyword, persons. Focus can be placed on a particular item by means of the arrow keys or mouse, and the respective term will be inserted into the entry field when pressing “enter”. After entering a blank space, the autocomplete function can be used once more for the same search field. The length of the list is limited to 16 entries. The keyword list will be generated from the index of keywords stored in the German Education Index, the list of persons offers terms from the persons index, and the freetext field displays a mixture of terms taken from the two former indexes.

Save settings
Activation of the link above the search mask respectively above the list of matches will save the current configuration on your computer by means of a Cookie. When you next visit the search mask, you will find all settings as you have last determined them. All selection lists and all checkboxes can individually be changed regarding default settings, independent from each other. A (changed) configuration can always be stored by activating the link. Please delete all "Fachportal" cookies from your browser if you wish to return to the standard default settings of the search mask.


Display, print, transfer

Short list

After submitting a search query by pressing the “search“ button, a short list of retrieved records will automatically be displayed. Your original search query will be displayed right at the top of the page. You can thus check how the search terms were linked by Boolean operators (And, Or, And Not). After selecting a filter (refined search) in the right hand section of a list of records, the display of search queries will be supplemented by respective aspects. Filters are recognisable by a cross and they can be individually removed by activation (clicking).

Below the search query, you will find a link for showing a search mask "Show search form", enabling you to display the search mask including the original search query. The line below will inform you about number of retrieved references, how many records are listed on screen and what page number you are currently visiting. The following functions are displayed (from left to right):

  • "all" – simultaneously tick/untick all entries of a list of records;
  • List of "records" – to decide how many records will be displayed on screen;
  • "Sort by" – enables switching between chronological sorting (default setting) and ranking on the basis of relative search word frequency by TF/IDF procedure. The relevance ranking procedure is only applied to the metadata. Additional weighting is performed for the year of publication, placing more emphasis on recent publications;
  • "refine search" – enables reduction of record number within the total number of records, by selecting additional search aspects. The selection will only affect the number of records. You can revise each selection by deactivating the checkboxes or the red crosses in the search query mask at the top.

If a search record immediately links up to a document that is freely accessible and readable online, a PDF symbol will be displayed (Icon). You can simply click onto the PDF icon to open the document. Clicking onto the title of a document will direct you to a page displaying fully detailed information about a record. Full display of all ticked references can be activated by pressing the button marked "Show marked results" – at the bottom end of the list. You can tick the boxes at the left hand side to mark records you wish to print out, transfer or store in your list of saved records.

By default, the list of results is displayed by publication year, in decreasing order. Thus, the most recent references will always be displayed at the top of the list. You can activate the full display of the record by clicking onto the title. You can display full sets of records of the complete list by activating the button "display marked results" at the bottom of the page.


German Education Index - Reporting - Profile service

You can subscribe to respectively save any query by a Feed. To this end, conventional browsers as well as other programmes , e.g. , Outlook , provide special functionalities. Moreover, specialized software is available (so-called feedreaders). After saving a search query, you will receive regular updates concerning your request. Please use the link at the right hand side of the short list of records: "Search query as RSS Feed" and follow the instruction, or alternatively copy the link into a programme of your choice. The saved query is limited to the latest update of the German Education Index. The quantity of records is less than a hundred. If you wish to load a higher number of data, , please use the exporting interface at the bottom of the list of matching records.


Full Display

The full display mode shows all information stored for a record. If the record refers to a journal article, the title of the journal will generally be displayed as a link. The link will open a new browser window and direct you to the database of journals (Zeitschriftendatenbank, ZDB), operated by the Berlin state library and the German National Library, where you will find exact bibliographic information as well as information about the location of the journals in libraries. You will thus be able to immediately find out whether “your” library holds the respective journal.

The link labelled "Availability" leads to the lower part of a page where an area with further availability options is displayed, e.g. a link to the Wikipedia ISBN search site or a link connecting to a Subito order submission form for document delivery. In an online tutorial by the University of Bamberg, access to documents from the German Education Index is illustrated. If your computer is connected to a network that is registered with our service, you will find a link that allows you to search respectively find literature that is available in your institution.

To offer such a link, we will compare your computer’s IP address with entries in our registration. Your IP address will not be stored. The institutions registered in the localisation service can be viewed in a list titled “Institution wählen". From outside the institution, you can create a respective link by manual allocation referring to the list.

In the full display of a record, keywords and authors / editors are implemented as links. You can run a search query for the respective keyword or name by clicking onto the link – immediately leading to a list of records

The following functions are listed in the right-hand column:

  • Posting links for transfer of a record or some of its parts to social message platforms. ;
  • Saving function
  • Exporting function in chosen format;
  • E-mailing function (attachment) in a chosen format;
  • Optionally, lists of recommendations are displayed concerning other references. Recommendations are based on other users’ above-average activation of records together with the record that is currently being displayed.
  • The QR (Quick Response) code codes the URL to the reference, allowing for storage of the reference on a smartphone. This URL is persistent (i.e. permalink).
The German Education Index supports transfer of bibliographical information to other systems, by integration of so-called COinS into the HTML souce code of fully display sites.

To return to the short list, please follow the “list of records“ link in the top left hand corner, above the green line.


Save Records

The "Save Records" function allows you to select individual titles that are relevant to your search from the short list, and save them in a list of selected titles that you create yourself.

Please note that you can only save records if your Internet browser (e.g. Firefox, Internet Explorer) accepts so-called "Cookies". As a rule, this function constitutes a default setting. Please adjust your browsing options if necessary (e.g. for Firefox: menu bar "Extras" - "Settings" - "Cookies "). The records will automatically be deleted after one year without further use.

There are two ways of saving chosen records in a list. You can either use the “save" button in the right hand column of a full display, or you can choose directly from the short list. Please do as follows:

Please make sure that only those titles that are relevant to your search are selected if you wish to use the function appropriately. The titles you would like to select must be marked by ticking the box to the left in the short list. Depending on whether you leave the search default setting "mark all results", or you have deactivated it, all of the displayed results are marked already, or not. If you wish to save all of the records, the button "mark all results" may have to be clicked (see right hand side of the screen) as long as no results have been marked before. If you wish to save individual records, please first click the "deactivate selection" button (at the top or bottom, to the right hand side) for deactivating previous settings, and then you can select an individual title by clicking onto the box next to the requested title .

When you have completed your selection, please click onto "transfer selected items". This way, you generate a shortlist of only those results you consider as relevant. Hence, your list represents an extract from the results of one or several searches you have conducted. Your individual list is stored automatically, and on the spot, by the system. Thus, you can process your list any time. You can add items by conducting a new search in the database, and saving more titles to the list in the manner described above. You can activate the full display of individual, or several, titles (marking as described above) by clicking onto "display marked results". It is further possible to remove titles from your list by activating the button "delete marked results". You can access the most recent version of your list by selecting the "Saved records" tag at the top of the screen. With regard to printing or transferring data from the list please follow the hints ("Print", "Transfer").

The list of saved records does not contain any duplicate copies. Added hits will be attached as individual segments after storage.

Please note that when closing a browser window, the saved records might be lost depending on browser settings. Hence, please save your data by printing or transfer if required.


Search track (stored search queries)

This function enables you to store search queries, which are presented as links for further search. Before submitting a search query, activate the box for storage ("History") in the right hand corner of the advanced search mask below the field labels. You can access the list of search queries by opening the tab for the search track ("History") above the search mask. In analogy to the “save record“ function, this functionality is based on the Cookie setting in your web browser. The terms described in the paragraph on storing a record ("Save Records") apply.



Please mark records from the short list you wish to print out (respectively de-mark records you do not wish to print) and press the “print” button. The printout will list a short version of bibliographical data in alphabetical order.

To print out the full scope of bibliographical information, you can use the printing function of your web browser either via the full display of an individual record, or as a list after pressing the “display” button at the bottom of a list.

You can also print individual documents directly from the full record display


Transfer - Sending an E-Mail

Please mark the entries in a short list you wish to transfer. Go to the “transfer” area and select a transfer respectively system format from "system/format ".

Please choose the relevant system if you wish to transfer the references to a special database – select the type from the list and press “enter”. Further steps depend on the software installed. A detailed description can be found for the format descriptions (see below).

Formats can be saved on your computer as text files. . Following the display, go to the “save file as” function in your browser and then the type “text”. In the field “file name”, you can also add the appropriate extension (e.g. ".enw"). Ideally, you would refer to the list in the transfer area. Please indicate the location of storage in your system prior to pressing the “save” button at the bottom..

In addition to saving, all files can be sent to any e-mail address. Proceed as above. In addition, enter the e-mail address and press “send”. The file will be sent with a matching file extension in the filename. Please make sure your e-mail address is entered correctly to avoid loss of your search results.

Characters are encoded in ISO 8859-1 (latin-1).

The "back" button of your browser directs you back to the short list.

The following formats are available for transfer:

  • bibliographic format - The data are transferred into a list of references without the field names. Note! The following fields are not available in this format: document type, parallel title, title in other languages, translated title, key terms, description, recorded by, type of media update. The bibliographic format allows you to generate the reading list of your publication yourself: (1) Select the literature from the list of records; (2) activate the alphabetical sorting; (3) generate list; (4) copy the list to the clipboard-> Strg+C; (5) paste the list to your word processing programme -> Strg+V; (6) Formatting: mark the list, paragraph: indent the first line; (7) check that the list is alphabetically sorted.
  • with field headers - This format corresponds to the full display format.
  • analytical format: CSV/Excel, Literat - no composed fields are shown here, each informational unit is recorded in an individual field, e.g. instead of one field for the source, the title, year, number of a journal, year of publication etc. are recorded separately. The fields are listed in the top colon- each record is listed in a colon below. Each field is enclosed by hyphens, and the fields are separated by semi-cola. (CSV - Character Separated Value) This format is especially useful for further processing in your own database, for instance for a transfer to LiteRat. When saved locally as a file, it can also be transferred to Excel, which allows for a comfortable and inexpensive manner of administrating references.
  • Bibtex (.bib) - as in the analytical format, the fields are included in a decomposed form- the format can be used vor further processing in bibliographical databases operating with Bibtex-format.
  • Endnote Format (.enw) - as in the analytical format, the fields are included in a decomposed form- the format can be used vor further processing in bibliographical databases such as Endnote, Reference Manager, Citavi, RefWorks u.a. The following fields are not supported: secondary sources, indexed by and Update. A manual with screenshots and text in a pdf file format-(in German) guides you from a search in the German Education Index to a complete transfer into EndNote in ten steps. A well described and animated description as to Citavi can be accessed on the website.

    Note on LiteRat: The fields ISS, MTY and URL are not transferred.
    The analytical format contains the following list of fields.

  • Endnote, Citavi, Zotero - these formats are only offered if JavaScript is active in your browser. (default setting). This option enables you to integrate the references you have selected into your administration system by a "button click". Please proceed as follows: activate your literature management system when completing a search and the selection of titles. You can then create a new database, unless you have already done so, and perform the transfer. After pressing the button "Create List" you will be offered a dialogue box by the browser. You can choose whether the suggested file is to be saved locally, or opened. Please select the opening option here. The succeeding steps depend on the literature management programme you use. The necessary steps for a transfer to Citavi are described in the manual on the direct transfer of data to Citavi. A transfer and submission by EndNote automatically follows the selection of the target database. In principle, both these options work with the Internet Explorer as well as with the Firefox Browser. Zotero is only available as an extension to Firefox. In case Zotero is installed, it automatically takes over the transferred data. In case you would like to use another system, you need to change the general Zotero settings by deactivating "Use Zotero for downloaded RIS/REFERData". Information on Zotero is available at www.zotero.org.

    If another than the desired programme should open in case of the direct transfer, you should change the default setting "open with" in your operating system. When using Windows Explorer, chose the "options" in the menu "extras" and change the file ending "enw" to the desired programme, e.g. citavi.

  • Refworks - enables you to transfer selected references to your Refworks account "by a double button click". After pressing "create list" the browser offers you a further site and you will again be asked to press a button: "Export to Refworks". If you transfer several hundred records, the process may take a minute.

You can then press "create list", and save the subseqquently displayed site as a text file (chose "save as" and text format in your browser).


Using locally installed software as a search tool/search interface


Alternative to your search in the German Education Portal, you can search the German Education Index via a Z39.50-interface and upload selected results to Endnote, and process them in a usual manner there. Here, you will need the Connection File, a small configuration file specifically developed for Endnote. Please follow the link to download the file to your computer( right mouse button: "save target under"), save and copy the file to "Connections" in the Endnote-programme directory. In Windows, the Endnote programme directory can generally be found at: C:\programmes\Endnote x.y.

Download Endnote-Connection File


You can search the German Education Index immediately from Citavi. Please activate the title search menu, which will offer you a selection of platforms. When doing so for the first time, you will need to complete the list by means of the provided functions in order to enable the selection of the German Education Index. Your search options will be displayed on the right hand side in the search window. Data are selected and accepted by the same procedure as the transfer of a file stored locally or the direct transfer from a list of German Education Index hit records.

For further information provided by the producers, see Online recherchieren - In Katalogen und Datenbanken recherchieren (in German).